recognized by the Lown Institute with a 2018 Shrekli -- the award given for "profiteering and dysfunction in health care, named for Martin Shkreli, the price-hiking 'pharma bro' that everyone loves to hate."
The Lown Institute writes:
As part of clinical trials at the Hennepin County Medical Center in Minnesota, patients in the Emergency Department with severe agitation were given powerful antipsychotics and the potent sedative ketamine without their knowledge or consent. The Institutional Review Board of the hospital determined that these patients could not give informed consent, so they did not need to be told they were part of a trial. According to federal law, vulnerable patients must have a family member or representative give consent before participation.